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Sunday, November 5, 2017

What are the Symptoms, Causes and Prevention of Malaria?


If there is redness in your urine, high fever and chill, vomiting and flu like illness……be careful! This is may be Malaria, a disease man has been fighting since many years. Plasmodium, tiny protozoon is responsible for this disease. Different species of Plasmodium (P. Vivax, P. Malaria and P. Falciparum) are responsible for different type of Malaria. But malignant Malaria caused by plasmodium falciparum is the most serious one and can even be fatal.


Causes:



Initial Effect: How Malarial Parasite Enter In Our Body?

Plasmodium enters in human body as sporozoites (infectious form) through the bite of infected Female Anopheles mosquitoes. The parasites initially multiply within the liver cells. These parasites of malaria undergo blood schizogony in which they attack on R.B.C. in liver. It feed upon haemoglobin off R.B.C. the globin part is digested by lysolecith and haem part convert into Hemozoin granules. Our R.B.C. convert into amoeba like shape and called Amoeboid stage.

Hemozoin are insoluble iron containing toxic chemical form after rupturing of R.B.C. harmful for human body. The rapture of R.B.C. is associated with release of a toxic substance hemozoin which is responsible for the chill and high fever recurring every 3 to 4 days. During the infection both liver and spleen become black in colour due to deposition of hemozoin granules.


 After Entering Malarial Parasite into our body:


The species of malaria called M. falciparum is most serious and deadly malarial form. This species can certainly cause renal failure and brain fever which can block tiny blood vessels deep within organs. this process is called sequestration. When sequestration occur in brain, this is known as “Cerebral Malaria”.

It is observed that hemozoin when passed through our kidneys, it causes acute renal failures. Some patient may use pain killers to supress the pain which is most dangerous for them. In this process cells of nephrons get damage. The patient of Acute Tubular Necrosis(ATN) may even get recovery by getting proper treatment at early stage of infection. But if this necrosis goes on large scale, then the cells of tubular part of nephrons are totally damaged due to this the filtration of blood by kidneys do not occur lead to kidney failure. At this stage, recovery is almost nil and malfunctioning of kidneys can lead to the accumulation of urea in blood, a condition is called Uraemia. In such patients, urea can be removed by the process of Haemodialysis.  

Prevention:

1.Wear full sleeves cloths. Beware in morning and evening because this time is more active for    mosquito’s bites.

2. Avoid filling of water in open places. Use mosquito-fish like Gambusia which feeds on mosquito’s larva.

3. Take doctor advice or consultations if high and chill fever.

4. Take extract of basil leaves and black pepper. Lemon juice, apples and Dalia are also beneficial.

5. Use of household-level repellents like Good knight Activ+and Good knight Fastcard card will keep mosquitoes away.

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